Thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome and VEPTR Treatment Children who are diagnosed with Thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome (TIS) cannot breathe normally and their lungs also cannot grow properly. With Thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome, the chest cannot support normal breathing or lung growth due to abnormalities of the thorax such as flail chest syndrome, rib fusion with scoliosis, or hypo plastic thorax. As children with TIS grow, their chest wall is likely to become deformed and sunken, which may require nasal oxygen or a ventilator for breathing support. The treatment for this condition is often the placement of a Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR). The VEPTR is a metal rod that attaches to the ribs, spine, or pelvis, which thereby provides the rib cage with room to expand. Dr. J. Duncan Phillips and the exceptional team at WakeMed Physician Practices Pediatric Surgery and WakeMed Children's Hospital work closely with you and your family to discuss treatment options, risks and benefits associated with this type of procedure.