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Diabetes diet - type 2

Definition

The American Diabetes Association and the American Dietetic Association have developed specific dietary guidelines for people with diabetes. This article focuses on diet recommendations for people with type 2 diabetes.

See also:

Alternative Names

Type 2 diabetes diet; Diet - diabetes - type 2

Function

If you have type 2 diabetes, your main focus needs to be on weight control. Most people with this disease are overweight.

You can improve blood sugar (glucose) levels by following a meal plan that:

  • Has fewer calories
  • An even amount of carbohydrates,
  • Healthy monounsaturated fats instead of some carbohydrates

Examples of foods high in monounsaturated fats include peanut or almond butter, almonds, and walnuts. You can substitute these foods for carbohydrates, but keep portions small because these foods are high in calories. Learn how to read food labels to help you make better food choices.

Often, you can significantly improve control of type 2 diabetes with moderate weight loss (for example, 10 pounds) and increased physical activity (for example, 30 minutes of walking per day. Some people will need to take medicine by mouth or insulin in addition to making lifestyle changes.

CHILDREN AND TYPE 2 DIABETES

Children with type 2 diabetes present special challenges. Meal plans should consider the amount of calories needed for growth. Three smaller meals and three snacks are often required to meet calorie needs.

Changes in eating habits and increased exercise help improve blood sugar control. When at parties or during holidays, your child may still eat sugary foods, but then have fewer carbohydrates during other times of that day. For example, if your child eats birthday cake, Halloween candy, or other sweets, they should NOT have the usual daily amount of potatoes, pasta, or rice. This substitution helps keep calories and carbohydrates in better balance.

MEAL PLANNING

One of the most challenging aspects of managing diabetes is meal planning. Work closely with the doctor and dietitian to design a meal plan that maintains near-normal blood sugar (glucose) levels. The meal plan should give you or your child the proper amount of calories to maintain a healthy body weight.

Having diabetes does not mean you or your child must completely give up any specific food, but it does change the kinds of foods your child should eat routinely. Choose foods that help keep glucose levels in good control. Foods should also provide enough calories to maintain a healthy weight. Regular monitoring of blood sugar (glucose) at home will help you learn how different foods effect blood sugar (glucose) level.

Recommendations

A registered dietitian can help you best decide how to balance your diet with carbohydrates, protein, and fat. Here are some general guidelines:

The amount of each type of food you should eat depends on your diet, your weight, how often you exercise, and other existing health risks. Everyone has individual needs, which is why you should work with your doctor and, possibly, a dietitian to develop a meal plan that works for you.

But there are some reliable general recommendations. The Diabetes Food Pyramid, which resembles the old USDA food guide pyramid, splits foods into six groups in a range of serving sizes. In the Diabetes Food Pyramid, food groups are based on carbohydrate and protein content instead of their food type. A person with diabetes should eat more of the foods in the bottom of the pyramid (grains, beans, vegetables) than those on the top (fats and sweets). This diet will help keep your heart and body systems healthy.

GRAINS, BEANS, AND STARCHY VEGETABLES

(6 or more servings a day)

Foods like bread, grains, beans, rice, pasta, and starchy vegetables are at the bottom of the pyramid because they should serve as the foundation of your diet. As a group, these foods are loaded with vitamins, minerals, fiber, and healthy carbohydrates.

It is important, however, to eat foods with plenty of fiber. Choose whole-grain foods such as whole-grain bread or crackers, tortillas, bran cereal, brown rice, or beans. Use whole-wheat or other whole-grain flours in cooking and baking. Choose low-fat breads, such as bagels, tortillas, English muffins, and pita bread.

VEGETABLES

(3 - 5 servings a day)

Choose fresh or frozen vegetables without added sauces, fats, or salt. You should opt for more dark green and deep yellow vegetables, such as spinach, broccoli, romaine, carrots, and peppers.

FRUITS

(2 - 4 servings a day)

Choose whole fruits more often than juices. Fruits have more fiber. Citrus fruits, such as oranges, grapefruits, and tangerines, are best. Drink fruit juices that do NOT have added sweeteners or syrups.

MILK

(2 - 3 servings a day)

Choose low-fat or nonfat milk or yogurt. Yogurt has natural sugar in it, but it can also contain added sugar or artificial sweeteners. Yogurt with artificial sweeteners has fewer calories than yogurt with added sugar.

MEAT AND FISH

(2 - 3 servings a day)

Eat fish and poultry more often. Remove the skin from chicken and turkey. Select lean cuts of beef, veal, pork, or wild game. Trim all visible fat from meat. Bake, roast, broil, grill, or boil instead of frying.

FATS, ALCOHOL, AND SWEETS

In general, you should limit your intake of fatty foods, especially those high in saturated fat, such as hamburger, cheese, bacon, and butter.

If you choose to drink alcohol, limit the amount and have it with a meal. Check with your health care provider about a safe amount for you.

Sweets are high in fat and sugar, so keep portion sizes small. Other tips to avoid eating too many sweets:

  • Ask for extra spoons and forks and split your dessert with others.
  • Eat sweets that are sugar-free.
  • Always ask for the small serving size.

You should also know how to read food labels, and consult them when making food decisions.

References

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes -- 2009. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:S13-S61.

Eisenbarth GS, Polonsky KS, Buse JB. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. In: Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR. Kronenberg: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:chap 31.

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:S61-S78.


Review Date: 9/3/2009
Reviewed By: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.., and David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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