What is spondylolisthesis, and what are its symptoms?
Occurring when a vertebra slides forward or backward in your spine, spondylolisthesis can be caused by defects to the bone, surrounding tissue, trauma, or degenerative changes. Low back pain that worsens with activity is the most common symptom. However, some people have numbness, pain, or tingling in their lower extremities, as well as limited range of motion in the lower back.
How is it diagnosed and treated?
Lateral X-rays of the spine can easily identify spondylolisthesis, and an MRI can spot any nerve-root compression. There are several treatments, including rest, physical therapy, anti-inflammatory medications, epidural steroid injections, and, as a last resort, surgery.